INDO-MALAYAN Tropical & Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forest

Order Dermaptera

Family Cynocephalidae

Cynocephalus volans, 'Philippine Flying Lemur' 'Kagwang' (Bohol, Philippines).

Order Proboscidea

Family Elephantidae

There is one species of living elephant in Asia.

(Khao Yai National Park, Thailand)

Elephas maximus, 'Asian Elephant' male. Found in forest and open habitats. Distributed from India to Borneo.

When groups of Asian elephants are seen, they are led by the dominant females and include young of both sexes (Kinabatangan River, Borneo, Malaysia). Once males reach maturity, they tend to head off by themselves. As all mature males should.

(Kaeng Krahan National Park, Thailand)

Elephant poo is big. Like elephant.

Order Scandentia, 'Tree Shrews'

The 'tree shrews' make up their own order. They were once lumped in with the Insectivora, and they look like a squirrel, but they are now considered more closely related to primates, and are not a type of shrew. They have been found to have the highest brain-to-body ratio of any mammal; however this may not mean they are super smart, but that they are just super small. Tree Shrews are found only in the forests of tropical south-east Asia.

Family Tupaiidae

At first glance, Tree Shrews look superficially like the unrelated squirrels that often live in the same Asian rainforest habitat. However, when seen from the side, Tree Shrews have more pointed and less cute heads, with naked lips and ears. 

(Doi Inthanon, Thailand)

Tupaia belangeri, 'Northern Tree-shrew'.

(Kota Kinabalu HQ, Malaysia)

Tupaia (?) montana, 'Mountain Tree Shrew'. This species has been observed having a relationship with giant Pitcher plants; as they feed off sweet secretion provided by the plant, they sit over the pitcher (like a toilet seat) and defecate, providing nutrients for the plant. Endemic to the mountain rainforest of Borneo.

For the page on the rodents of the tropical Asian rainforest

Order Cetartiodactyla:
includes 'Even-toed hoofed mammals' and Cetaceans

Artiodactyla: Even toed ungulates

Family Bovidae

Capricornis spp. 'Serow'

There are currently six species of Serow. They are often described as 'goat-antelopes' and are usually found around rocky habitats. They are restricted to Asia.

(Khao Yai, Thailand)

Capricornis milneedwardsii, 'Mainland Serow'. Split from previous IndoChinese Serow. This species is found mostly in mountain forest and clearings on mainland south-east Asia.

Family Cervidae: Deer

(Horton Plains, Sri Lanka)

Rusa unicolor, 'Sambar'.

Family Suidae: Pigs

(Tanjung Puting National Park, Borneo, Indonesia)

Sus barbatus, 'Bearded Pig'. Found in forests, swamps and mangroves in the Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and some islands.

Order Perissodactyla: Odd-toed Ungulates

Order Chiroptera: Bats

Family Pteropodidae: Flying Fox and Fruit Bats

(Subic Bay, Philippines)

Pteropus spp. 

(vampyrus group)

(Subic Bay, Philippines)

Pteropus vampyrus, 'Great/Giant Flying Fox.

(Singapore Zoo)

'Giant Flying Fox', close up, eating

(Siem Reap, Cambodia)

Pteropus lylei, 'Lyle's Flying Fox'.


Pteropus medius, 'Indian Flying Fox'.

Acerodon spp.

(Subic Bay, Philippines)

Acerodon jubatus, 'Golden-crowned Fruit Bat'. Endemic to the Philippines. 

Cynopterus spp.


Cynopterus brachyotis, 'Lesser Dog-faced/Short-nosed Fruit Bat'.  Found from southern India, across south-east Asian mainland, to Borneo. Common in many habitats, including urban areas. 

Order Carnivora

Family Felidae: Cats

(Lunugamvehera National Park, Sri Lanka)

Panthera pardus, 'Leopard' . One of the few big cats that still has a wide distribution; this species is found in forest and woodland across tropical Africa and Asia.

Family Viverridae: Civets

(Jahoo, Cambodia)

Arctictis binturong, 'Binturong'.

Family Herpestidae: Mongoose

(Horton Plains, Sri Lanka)

Herpestes smithii, 'Ruddy Mongoose'. Endemic to hill forests of India and Sri Lanka.

(Kaeng Krachan National Park)

Herpestes javanicus, 'Small Asian/Javan Mongoose'.

Family Ursidae: Bears

(Sepilok, Malaysian Borneo)

Helarctos malayanus, 'Sun Bear'. Named 'sun-bear' because of the large yellow patch on chest. They are the most arboreal of all bears. They are found in forests of the south-east Asian mainland and into Sumatra and Borneo.

Back to the page on Asian tropical rainforest

Search this website and google: