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INDO-MALAYAN Tropical & Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forest

Phylum Annelida: Worms

Subclass Hirudinea: Leeches

Leech, (Bhutan).

Phylum Arthropoda

Subphylum Myriapoda: Millipedes & Centipedes

Millipedes and Centipedes are long with many legs. The main difference between the two groups is that millipedes appear to have two legs per segment, while centipedes have one. Millipedes are generally slower, and feed on decaying vegetation. Centipedes can be much faster, and often predate on other invertebrates. The latter can have painful bites, while the former have chemical defences. Millipedes tend to roll into a defensive ball when touched; centipedes shouldn't be touched! 

Class Chilopoda: Centipedes

(Taman Negara, Malaysia)

Centipedes appear to have one leg per segment (on either side).

Order Scolopendromorpha

(Taman Negara, Malaysia)

These centipedes contain 21 or 23 body segments. They can sometimes be seen in tropical forests around the world, and are fast and long. They are often reddish or orange in colour. They have been known to give painful bites, and have even resulted in death.

Class Diplopoda: Millipedes

A scientist who studies millipedes is called a diplopodologist!

(Sinharaja, Sri Lanka)

Millipedes appear to have two legs per segment.

(Sinharaja, Sri Lanka)
(Jahoo Gibbon Camp, Cambodia)

When harassed, they tend to curl up.

Order Sphaerotheriida: 'Giant Pill Millipedes'

These millipedes are found in some parts of the old world tropics, from Madagascar, to India, through tropical Asia, and to Australia and New Zealand. They are often large, and roll into a tight hard ball.

Family Zephroniidae

'Giant Pill Millipede' (Poring Hot Springs, Malaysian Borneo).

When a giant pill millipede roll curls up, they create a tight ball immune to most predators, with the margins of the second and last dorsal plates fitting perfectly into one another.

Order Polydesmida: 'Flat-backed Millipedes'

This is the largest order of millipedes in the world, with over 3,500 species. They are called 'flat-backed', because their segments have a winged extension known as paranota. This group includes the species that defend themselves with hydrogen cyanide.

'Flat-backed Millipede' (Sepilok, Malaysian Borneo). This species looks like a centipede (and there are red centipedes in Asia to be wary of); but note the two legs per segment.

For the page on the Asian tropical rainforest

Throughout the virus I am working in Australia on and off as local borders close, mostly in the Kimberley with Coral Expeditions (May-September). If you can't go travelling until everything settles down, then until then, here I am doing online guided walks for Noble Caledonia and online lectures for Silversea.